AXELROD, JULIUS (1912– ), U.S. biochemist, pharmacologist, and Nobel Prize laureate. Born in New York City, the son of Polish immigrants, he obtained his B.Sc. in 1933 from New York's City College, his M.A. in 1941 from New York University, and his Ph.D. in 1955 from George Washington University. In 1949 he joined the staff of the National Heart Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, and in 1954 he was invited to establish a pharmacology section and was appointed chief of the section, Laboratory of Clinical Science, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). In 1957 he began his most famous research project which focused on the activity of neurotransmitter   hormones. Axelrod specialized in the field of biochemical mechanisms, drug and hormone actions, and glandular research. His achievement was based on Euler's discovery of noradrenaline (norepinephrine), a chemical substance that transmits nerve impulses. Axelrod identified the mechanisms that regulate the formation of noradrenaline in nerve cells as well as the mechanisms in its inactivation. He discovered the enzyme that neutralizes noradrenaline by an enzyme, and named it catechol-o-methyl transferase. The enzyme was shown to be useful in dealing with the effects of certain psychotropic drugs and in research on hypertension and schizophrenia. Axelrod's work enabled researchers during the 1970s to develop a new class of antidepressant medication such as Prozac. Over the next 30 years, until his retirement in 1984, he worked on many research projects in pharmacology. He shared the 1970 Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine with the British biophysicist sir bernard katz and the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler. Axelrod remained an active scientist and researcher and distinguished lecturer throughout the 1970s. He was the recipient of many awards and a member of many editorials boards and committees of scientific journals. In 1984 he formally retired from NIMH and was named Scientist Emeritus of the National Institute of Health in 1996. (Gali Rotstein (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Axelrod, Julius — ▪ 2005       American neuroscientist and pharmacologist (b. May 30, 1912, New York, N.Y. d. Dec. 29, 2004, Rockville, Md.), discovered biochemical processes that play a crucial role in the mechanisms by which chemicals called neurotransmitters… …   Universalium

  • Axelrod , Julius — (1912–) American neuropharmacologist Axelrod was born in New York City and educated there at the City College. Unable to finance a medical career, Axelrod worked from 1935 to 1945 as a technician in a laboratory of industrial hygiene that had… …   Scientists

  • Axelrod, Julius — (b. 1912)    US biochemist and Nobel laureate 1970. Born in New York City, Axelrod shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for research on nerve impulses and the treatment of nervous and mental disorders …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Axelrod,Julius — Ax·el·rod (ăkʹsəl rŏd ), Julius. Born 1912. American biochemist. He shared a 1970 Nobel Prize for studies of how nerve impulses are transmitted. * * * …   Universalium

  • Axelrod, Julius — (1912 83)    US biochemist. Born in New York City, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1970 for research on nerve impulses and the treatment of nervous disorders …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Axelrod, Julius — ► (n. 1912) Científico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina en 1970, compartido con B. Katz y U. von Euler, por sus investigaciones sobre el mecanismo de transmisión de los mensajes nerviosos …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Axelrod — Julius …   Scientists

  • Axelrod — Axelrod, Julius …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Julius Axelrod — (* 30. Mai 1912 in New York City; † 29. Dezember 2004 in Rockville, Maryland) war ein US amerikanischer Pharmakologe und Neurochemiker. Axelrod wuchs in ärmlichen Verhältnissen als Sohn jüdischer Einwanderer aus Polen i …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • AXELROD (J.) — AXELROD JULIUS (1912 ) Biochimiste américain. Né à New York, Julius Axelrod devient assistant dans le département de bactériologie de l’école de médecine de sa ville natale entre 1933 et 1935, puis chimiste au Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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